Flow rate Q is directly proportional to the pressure difference P 2 − P 1 , and inversely proportional to the length l of the tube and viscosity η of the fluid. assumes that headloss is negligible) and the flow rate with the continuity equation. Studies will be made on how to express losses caused by a change in the cross sectional area of a pipe, a pipe bend and a valve, in addition to the frictional loss of a pipe. 5 (for matured installation) and 1 (for a new perfectly performing BMP Best management practice. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls. The tank is open to atmospheric pressure and the the pipe is fully developed. Metals don’t like being metals, they prefer remaining as ores. 542P0 Vapor flow though holes & pipes Vapor flow through holes Steady flow of vapor. Charts or tables can be used to help predict the flow conditions in these systems when the pipes are not flowing full. Record flow and pressure readings. Learn more about water supply systems. Reynolds number onwards the disturbance can grow but transition to turbulence occurs at (U x )=3 5× 5 −10 6 ∞ ν. But in most engineering problems we would like to focus our attention on a piece of equipment through which material flows contineously, e. Pipe Air Flow TEC-15 Flow of Air Through a Pipe PRIMARY PRESSURE - PSIG FLOW SCFM 2 1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70. R y h k x y h k t x x y. Without them, these systems could not exist. Introduction to Surface Water Hydrology – Hydrologic Cycle. Water flowing though a closed conduit (pipe) is a lamina flow in a river of a turbulent flow. Or with the kinematic velocity, viscosity, which is the, the expression on the right hand, side. Since water is flowing continuously through pipe and nozzle we can apply law of continuity, ∴ 𝑄. A point gauge attached to the tank is used. All Chemical Engineering Students: Attached is a collection of recommended fluid mean velocities through piping. This is a concentric tube construction. Athanasia Kalpakli2012, Experimental study of turbulent flows through pipe bends CCGEx & Linn´e Flow Centre, KTH Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Abstract This thesis deals with turbulent flows in 90 degree curved pipes of circular cross-section. Task: Calculate the pressure drop that creates natural gas at a flow rate of 500 MMSCFD through a pipeline with the nominal diameter of 36", and the length of 4 miles, with an internal roughness of the pipe wall of 0. 0 MJ) per hour, or a one and one-half ton unit. In addition, each pipe will experience a different flowrate of fluid going through it. Pushing high flows of water through a small pipe wastes both energy and money. Water hammer can occur for any fluid, in any pipe, but the severity varies depending on the detailed conditions of the fluid and the pipe. Sixteen desktop calculators, fourteen calculators as the web application, three calculators for. Motion paths have many uses in PowerPoint and can create impact and focus. 0 is flowing through a constant-area piping system of N = 5. The entrance length required to establish fully developed laminar flow is. Know flow equations through them. Water in a pipe flows like water in a river, with water in the middle flowing much faster than water at the edges. If you're buying an old house, beware of old galvanized steel water pipes. Department of Mechanical Engineering. It can be successfully applied to air flow in lung alveoli, or the flow through a. 13 Septic and conservancy tanks 9 3. Adiabatic Flow of a Compressible Fluid Through a Conduit Flow through pipes in a typical plant where line lengths are short, or the pipe is well insulated can be considered adiabatic. Gas temperature 40 F and the pressure at the pipeline start is 700 psi. PE 607: Oil & Gas Pipeline Design, Maintenance & Repair ١ Dr. discharge rate) given its diameter (for a round pipe, height & width for a rectangular one) and the velocity of the liquid or gas flowing through it. Online calculator to quickly determine Water Flow Rate through Piping. Residual and Static flows are measured here. FIGURE 37-11 Spring force, crankcase pressure, and intake manifold vacuum work together to regulate the flow rate through the PCV valve. Water flowing through a pipe does not flow uniformly from edge to edge. The flow of steam through a safety valve vent pipe system has been analyzed to provide a design basis for sizing the pipe to prevent blowback of steam. Q design = Q peak + Q ind + Q inf. These reducer pipes, which are larger in diameter, help to disperse the flow, therefore reducing the velocity. Laminar Flow B. Vertical Pipe Flow Regimes. Friction between the pipe and the solids. Sudden expansion b. Major Losses The major head loss in pipe flows is given by equation 3. The weight depends on the volume of water (in m 3) and its density (in kg/m 3). " The Variables. If the pipe is circular, you will find it according to the following equation: R = A / P = πr² / 2πr = r / 2 = d / 4. These flow meters are used for flow measurement applicatons of 0. Or with the kinematic velocity, viscosity, which is the, the expression on the right hand, side. The open channel flow calculator Select Channel Type: Trapezoid Triangle Rectangle Circle Select parameter for solving Velocity(V)&Discharge(Q) Channel slope from V Channel slope from Q Manning Coefficient from V Manning Coefficient from Q Depth from Q RightSlope from Q Even slope from Q LeftSlope from Q. D-6 Pipe Sizes For Water Distribution System Design D-2. FLOW THROUGH PIPES. 8 m/sec/sec. The full range of tools available provide unrivalled standards of actionable data and are ideally suited to provide all pipeline & pigging requirements. Type of fluid — high viscous fluids need lesser velocity when compared to low viscous fluids 2. Laminar flow sounds great, but the potential problem is that slow-moving fluid can cling to. as of April 1. 6 fins/inch JCB AGRICULTURE - PRODUCT TRAINING 10. L is usually D R e VL / (diameter) in a pipe flow. A flow can be an Internal flow or an External Flow, the distinction being obvious. Task: Calculate the pressure drop that creates natural gas at a flow rate of 500 MMSCFD through a pipeline with the nominal diameter of 36", and the length of 4 miles, with an internal roughness of the pipe wall of 0. ” Accomplished several ways: Shut-off nozzle with a lever or rotation of nozzle to stop flow would be effective. The total mass flow is the sum of the flow in each pipe: m = m 1 + m 2 +. They then increase the flow in set increments, taking readings each time, until reaching maximum flow rate. Equations were developed to express the influence of internal fluid flow on the natural frequency and displacement amplitude of vibrating pipes. Fluid Flow Instrumentation In the physical world, mechanical engineers are frequently required to monitor or control the flow of various fluids through pipes, ducts and assorted vessels. CONTAINERS • Thermal • Similar construction as general purpose • Inside is isolated from outer. 5 (for matured installation) and 1 (for a new perfectly performing BMP Best management practice. Perforated fluid distribution pipes have been widely used in agriculture, water supply and drainage, ventilation, the chemical industry, and other sectors. Choice of pipe size in a system will largely come down to what pressure is driving the water, so a mains-powered 'combi' boiler will only require 15mm pipes throughout as the mains is at a high pressure (usually 3 bar and above), so can drive the required flow through narrowish pipes, easily overcoming the friction to flow in these pipes. So, be careful. Pipes must be sized to achieve flow rates set out in accordance with Table 3 (see table below), or the pipes must be sized in accordance with Table 4. pipe flow lab report connor 13295910 matthew 13295934 nazmus 12632877 sam 13356706 table of contents abstract introduction methodology experimental procedure. Orifice Plates cover a wide range of applications of fluid and operating conditions. (a) there is a valve-regulated flow of 50 L s–1 to reservoir C but water flows freely under gravity in the other pipes; (b) water flows freely under gravity in all pipes. Each of these flows behaves in different manners in terms of their frictional energy loss while flowing and have different equations that predict their behavior. • Mechanical air flow • “Fantainers” • Mechanical fan installed inside or outside • Ambient air drawn into the floor by the fan via a especially designed perforated lower front sill and replaced air is removed through the fan 3 33. 61, Worst case scenario C0=1. Less expenditure is required for their maintenance. Pipes with smooth walls such as glass, copper, brass and polyethylene have only a small effect on. (2) Predict pressure rise and the speed of water-hammer waves in rigid and non-rigid pipes. There are many differ-ent types of flow meters available on the market. of fluids through pipes are also applicable to flow of water through soils. Chemical and Process Engineering Solution from the Industrial Engineering Area of ConceptDraw Solution Park is a unique tool which contains variety of predesigned process flow diagram symbols for easy. STATIC, STAGNATION, AND DYNAMIC PRESSURES Bernoulli equation is In this equation p is called static pressure, because it is the pressure that would be measured by an instrument that is static with respect to the fluid. Transient Flow These flows can be identified by using Reynolds's number. Sixteen desktop calculators, fourteen calculators as the web application, three calculators for. , piping, equipment, instrumentation) necessary to design, construct and operate the facility. In this example, the distance is: 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 1 + 2 = 16 (or 1,600 feet). PVC pipes are made out of a material known as polyvinyl chloride, a durable, strong plastic-like substance. 5 gpm, which is at the top of the low-flow spectrum. diameter end-cap orifice on a 6-in. Flow Velocity Measured. These are the same physical factors that govern the flow of any fluid, and are based on a fundamental law of physics, namely Ohm's Law, which states that current (I) equals the voltage difference (ΔV) divided by resistance (R). If you're buying an old house, beware of old galvanized steel water pipes. Comprehensive portfolio for gases, liquids and steam. The flow in gallons per minute is given in the following table for different sizes of standard pipe and for different heights of the water. Often, the big box retailers promote “low-flow” which are rated at 2. The incompressible steady flow energy equation, including friction loss, would generalise to 22 12,1 ,2 2212 mm f ppUU zzh ρρgg g g ⎛⎞⎛ ⎞. Title 28 through Title 41. Anand Kulkarni (roll no)202125 INTRODUCTION Pipe is a closed conduit through which the fluid flows under pressure. Agricultural drainage systems entail the flow of pore water through both unsaturated and saturated soil. Title 17 through Title 27. It is called a double-pipe exchanger because one fluid flows inside a pipe and the other fluid flows between that pipe and another pipe that surrounds the first. Inputs and Outputs The MapReduce framework operates exclusively on pairs, that is, the framework views the input to the job as a set of pairs and produces a set of pairs as the output of the job, conceivably. They are connected. Water supply system, infrastructure for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage, and distribution of water for homes, commercial establishments, industry, and irrigation, as well as for such public needs as firefighting and street flushing. However, multi-split systems turn OFF or ON completely in response to one master controller, whereas VRF systems continually adjust the flow of refrigerant to each indoor evaporator. Flow in Conduits ♦ Open Channel Flow or Pressure Flow , and the principles of conduit flow apply. Generally, a Process Flow Diagram shows only the major equipment and doesn't show details. P2D understands this need and are geared to deliver value to customers through trusted, innovative and proven technologies. where: v = velocity of air in feet per second (ft/sec) p = loss of pressure due to flow through the pipes in ounces per square inch (ounces/in 2). It measures actual flow of any fluid while all other types of flow meters measure some other parameter and convert the values into flowrate. Show that the flow is fully turbulent, and thus the friction factor is independent of Reynolds number. » Jain Irrigatio’s turnover shows record growth towards progress: Anil Jain » Jain Irrigation, Inc. An inability to install the pipe uniformly (i. Water flows through two different pipes A and B of the same circular cross-section but at different flow rates. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes" is the property of its rightful owner. Domestic areas typically use a piston/rotary positive displacement meters or a nutating disk meter, while commercial areas use turbine flow meters. Head loss in pipes is an expression of pressure loss through the system in terms of equivalent fluid column length (Çengel and Cimbala 2006). There are various mathematical models that describe the movement of fluids and various engineering correlations that can be used for special cases. Learn new and interesting things. 5) Flow area is determined by the geometry of the channel plus the level of free surface,. A considerable amount of fluid energy is lost in the order of overcoming these resistances. Losses in head due to change in geometry is important part to analyse the flow through pipes. (2) Predict pressure rise and the speed of water-hammer waves in rigid and non-rigid pipes. 5 V, but now a larger current. Anand Kulkarni (roll no)202125 INTRODUCTION Pipe is a closed conduit through which the fluid flows under pressure. 61, Worst case scenario C0=1. We can increase the mass flow through a tube by increasing the area, increasing the total pressure, or decreasing the total temperature. Coolant/water is pumped through pipes to hot engine; coolant absorbs heat; fins on radiator results in high surface area (A); as car moves, air flow and hence ‘h’ increases due to forced convection. Losses of Energy in Pipes, Friction Loss and Darcy Equation for Energy Loss of Head Due to. The inlet and outlet diameters of the pipe in the muffler should also be as large as feasible, so as to allow free flow of exhaust gases. 5 m on a side. Department of Mechanical Engineering. As in our own bodies, where the veins and arteries move blood through the pumping. Friction losses are a complex function of the system geometry, the fluid properties and the flow rate in the system. Two examples are the large diameter pipes are used in many hydroelectric schemes and the comparatively small bore pipes used to connect the various pumps; motors and rams used on earth moving plant and machine tools. But the effect of increasing velocity (Mach number) is a little harder to figure out. The thesis was supervised by PhD Matti Heiliö. of the pipe(s) and of the fluid can make a marked difference in the correct (or. For circular pipes flowing full, Equation 6‑3 becomes: the slope of the energy grade line and hydraulic grade line through the conduit are parallel and are represented by the friction slope. GPM = (V x A)/0. Utkarsh Kale (roll no) 202101 3. Flow Through Pipes. A common problem with pipes is corrosion. Preferential flow through soil-pipes has been attributed to about 60% of the cases of gully erosion under agronomic conditions in European fields (Bocco, 1991). On the other hand, there are different mathematical formulations for hydraulic. 4 x 10-6) x V2 (1) where V is the flow rate in gpm. This Oatey Quiet Pipes Washing Machine Water Hammer Arrester features a shock-absorbing chamber that reduces the shock from water line vibrations. This is a high-yielding topic since it carries a high weight age in GATE. Control flow of water through distribution system 2. One of the most common uses of a flow control valve is to r egulate the speed of motors or cylinders within the system. Title 1 through Title 16. Use Realeflow to walk through a property once, estimate line-item repairs costs, and generate a custom rehab plan in under 5 minutes … all from your iPad or cell phone. 29 Mb, Add Time: April-1st-2017 Flow Free Online is an online game that you can play on 4J. Theoretical Work on Secondary Flow Secondary flow occurs in curved pipes. 1 LAMINAR FLOW A stream line is an imaginary line with no flow norm al to it, only along it. 9 Minimum depth of drain pipes 9 3. Ultrasonic flow meters are non-intrusive devices that use acoustic vibrations to measure the flow rate of liquid. Comparison of Open Channel Flow & Pipe Flow 1) OCF must have a free surface 2) A free surface is subject to atmospheric pressure 3) The driving force is mainly the component of gravity along the flow direction. pdf), Text File (. 528P0 Triatomic ~1. At the lower point shown in the figure below, the pressure is 1. When the flow is by grav. The curves for the 100 cP fluid are almost level, which indicate nearly constant flow rates with increasing. Title 1 through Title 16. Hadoop Pipes is a SWIG- compatible C++ API to implement MapReduce applications (non JNI TM based). A body moving in a fluid will have a bound vortex sheet on its surface that maintains the no-flow-through condition. From the experiment, volumetric flow is calculated with the help of analogue flow meter. This takes all of the “guesswork” out the equation and allows you to map out your next renovation project from A-Z (no real estate experience or construction knowledge. The density of steam at 5 bar g is 3. This requires a detailed understanding of fluid flow in pipes. » Jain Irrigatio’s turnover shows record growth towards progress: Anil Jain » Jain Irrigation, Inc. Utkarsh Kale (roll no) 202101 3. Perforated fluid distribution pipes have been widely used in agriculture, water supply and drainage, ventilation, the chemical industry, and other sectors. 10 Pipe Flow Expert Example Systems Common 04 - Tee Fittings Figure 4 Common 04 - Tee Fittings Tee fittings are a special case where the flow rate through the tee will be different for each flow path, therefore two fittings should be used. Students can compare advantages, disadvantages and potential applications of each meter. 17 Grease traps 10. pipe flow lab report connor 13295910 matthew 13295934 nazmus 12632877 sam 13356706 table of contents abstract introduction methodology experimental procedure. (The tank is 12 feet in diameter. Suppose a pipe line consists of a number of pipes of different sizes and lengths. A common feature for pipe-erosion is the existence of water-restrictive layers (Botschek et al. PD flow meters include piston meters, oval-gear meters, nutating disk meters, rotary vane type meters, etc. τ τ µ w wo= (,,,,)rV kρ thus n=6, m=3 and r=3 such that Π i=1,2,3 = 2 w V 8 f ρ τ = , Re VD VDρ µν = =, k/D; or f=f(Re, k/D) where k=roughness height. Charts or tables can be used to help predict the flow conditions in these systems when the pipes are not flowing full. Equations were developed to express the influence of internal fluid flow on the natural frequency and displacement amplitude of vibrating pipes. In order to make the two types of tube comparable, and to isolate the coriolis effect, it seems to me you would need to adjust the dimensions of the rifled tube so that its cross sectional area (including the effect of the rifling which increases the wetted perimeter) equals the cross. When a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences some resistance due to which some of the energy of the fluid is lost. Consider a liquid flowing fully through a pipe of diameter d. Hot exhaust gases flow through a pipe as shown below. Class12: Energy losses in pipe flow Major energy loss (due to friction) Minor energy losses a. ” Accomplished several ways: Shut-off nozzle with a lever or rotation of nozzle to stop flow would be effective. Easily calculate the volumetric flow rate of a pipe (a. Derivation of General Energy Equation. Flow rate depends on friction 8. Weirs are commonly used for measurement of open channel flow rate. gradients through the eddy viscosity (similar to molecular viscosity) - isotropic (eddy viscosity is a scalar!) 2) Reynolds stress transport models - equations derived directly manipulating the NS equations - still contain unknown (undetermined) quantities - no assumption of isotropy - very complicated and expensive to solve. Under steady state condition: rate of heat convection into the wall = rate of heat conduction through wall 1 = rate of heat conduction through wall 2. as of October 1. But the attendant is an increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, the implementation of coal to gas policy without delay, using the. Consider fully developed flow through a constant-area pipe between section 1 and 2 in Figure 3. Although this topic appears to be tough to majority of the candidates, attaining a fair degree of. This version is usable for browsers without Javascript also. Heat transfer is the study of the flow of heat. A summary of flow visualization methods is included in the table below: Flow Visualization comparison: Method Flow Vis. At an early design stage, you often need to calculate the. ppt), PDF File (. Less expenditure is required for their maintenance. Force required to accelerate the solids. Water in a city is distributed by extensive piping net-works. 11 Power of a Flowing Liquid 6. The First Law of Thermodynamics was derived for a system, i. At the lower point shown in the figure below, the pressure is 1. Hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes store water high up in dams. 186) The parameter κ is the dilatational or bulk viscosity, a coefficient that expresses viscous. This lowers the flow rate to a trickle, and increases the head in all the tubes, which aids in purging out any trapped air bubbles in the lines. Volumetric flow rate. The refrigerant flow through the metered orifice is extreamly important, anything restricting the flow will affect the entire system. These are the same physical factors that govern the flow of any fluid, and are based on a fundamental law of physics, namely Ohm's Law, which states that current (I) equals the voltage difference (ΔV) divided by resistance (R). At a larger depth the same discharge may be delivered through the section with a smaller velocity and a higher specific energy than a critical depth. Reynolds number onwards the disturbance can grow but transition to turbulence occurs at (U x )=3 5× 5 −10 6 ∞ ν. Re: Simulating Fluid Flow in Pipes Or if Office Impress has similar animation functions as PPoint then use the wipe function and do the animation within Open Impress. Needed is an inexpensive device for non-invasively determining yes, water is flowing, or no, water is not flowing. The V-cone flow meter has a cone shaped obstruction in. Included are tunnels, partially filled pipes, canals, streams, and rivers. Volumetric Flow Rate Required. As per Bernoulli's equation, the total head at any point in water under steady flow condition may be expressed as Total head = pressure head + velocity head + elevation head This principle can be understood with regards to the flow of water through a sample of soil. Cold air can enter these concealed spaces through small. Equation 1 uses the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor coefficient and expresses the head loss in the system in terms of velocity, diameter and pipe length. What are the velocity constraints for a pipe? Thank You Praveen. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Second Edition, uses clear images and animations of flow patterns to help readers grasp the fundamental rules of fluid behavior. The approach involved complex mechanics and geometric analysis to arrive at new and simple equations which compares favorably to experimental results. KEY WORDS: flow-induced vibration, pipeline, vibration analysis, vibration measurement, damper, NETPULS, dPIPE INTRODUCTION Vibration of High Energy pipelines very often is the cause of pipe and fitting cracking and other relevant problems. Plain concrete pipes can bear Water-head up to 15 meters ( 50 feet) R. On Model Flow Vis. 9 feet for every 100 feet traveled. Keep in mind that coal is about a thousand times denser than air and is a solid. Smoke Cartel offers a gorgeous variety of glass pipes, hand pipes, and spoons for your smoking pleasure. The exit is at standard atmospheric pressure (101 kPa) and is 200 m higher. STATIC, STAGNATION, AND DYNAMIC PRESSURES Bernoulli equation is In this equation p is called static pressure, because it is the pressure that would be measured by an instrument that is static with respect to the fluid. Driving Forces. Water traveling through a 2-inch steel pipe moves at a velocity of 4. Part 2 (PDF) 6. Beginning with a definition of the problem, including the temperature difference and the heat flow which has to be transported, one can define all the demands on a heat pipe. A flow can be an Internal flow or an External Flow, the distinction being obvious. Vertical Pipe Flow Regimes. Learn more about water supply systems. divided into two categories: (a) multi-phase through vertical pipes, (b) multi-phase flow through annuli. Metals don’t like being metals, they prefer remaining as ores. The path of any particle of liquid as it moves through the pipe is. Bernoulli's Equation relates the pressure loss in the pipe to a change in the average fluid velocity. Water in a pipe is a conservation of energy problem too. through a ¼" diameter tube containing an elbow. 45 In this work, the simulations were carried out for the elbow of configuration R c /D = 1 having a flow deflection angle. Turbulent Flow a. Flow rate depends on friction 8. Preflow Push Algorithm M. A typical situation is a pipe into which gas enters at a given pressure and temperature and flows at a rate determined by the length and diameter of the pipe and. Shankar Subramanian. Super Sonic Flow in Pipe Super Sonic Flow in Pipe Ace12 (Chemical) (OP) 2 May 12 16:42. The evaporator would be capable of reducing the temperature of air passing through the fins and this is a prime example of the refrigeration effect. Volumetric Flow Rate Required. 000001 A galvanized iron pipe with a roughness height of 0. Universal Flow Monitors, Inc. It connects to another, bigger pipe that feeds into the pump itself. The pressure gauge at the end of the pipe reads 112 psi. This fluid can range from thick oils to light gasses. There are many methods of determining the rate of flow in open channels. Viscous Flow in Pipes. " The Variables. 111 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 612-625-0705. PD flow meters include piston meters, oval-gear meters, nutating disk meters, rotary vane type meters, etc. Without them, these systems could not exist. The water from the dam flows down through pipes and rotates the turbines of generators to The gas is taken out through the gas outlet. Part 2 (PDF) 6. Flows in closed conduits or channels, like pipes or air ducts, are entirely in contact with rigid boundaries. Watch this video and get answers on How to Create and Draw and present visually Pipe Flow Diagrams in PowerPoint - PPT Presentation Template. It is known as subcritical flow. – The maximum power handling capability of a transmission line is. An understanding of fluid flow through pipes and ducts is a fundamental requisite for the design and optimization of fluid-flow systems. A widely used approach in steady-state analysis of water distribution networks is the global gradient algorithm (GGA). The height of. star wars, hate, let the hate flow through you # star wars # hate # let the hate flow through you. ) & Total Energy Line (T. Flow rate depends on friction 8. Suppose a pipe line consists of a number of pipes of different sizes and lengths. E N G I N E E R I N G - Gear Pump Basics The Flow vs. The method is not new [2, 4, 5] but does not seem to have been applied beyond the solution for flow in a pipe of equilateral triangular cross-section. Since all safe work operations must begin with preplanning, the Field Engineer makes a direct contribution to safety by reviewing the planned work with safety in mind. PIPE-FLO Professional v12. After our trial and test, the software is proved to be official, secure and free. At the higher point located at y = 2. This chart indicates the flow in GPM that a pipe size can generally handle: Pipe Size GPM ½" Up to 1. Between these two values is "critical" zone where the flow can be laminar or turbulent or in the process of change and is mainly unpredictable. We can use pipes to direct the water to a specific place. STATIC, STAGNATION, AND DYNAMIC PRESSURES Bernoulli equation is In this equation p is called static pressure, because it is the pressure that would be measured by an instrument that is static with respect to the fluid. When the water flows through the rotor, rotor rolls and the spee. If the swing is pushed at a frequency which either matches the swing's natural frequency or is a sub-multiple of that natural frequency, then the swing's amplitude builds, and we say that it is in resonance. It can also cause corrosion and shorten the life of the pipe. This website is offering pipe flow calculators for everyday problem-solving in the field of fluid dynamics. In the case of water, the source is a reservoir or pumping station; the transportation is through pipes; and the force to make it flow is provided by a pump. The Hazen-Williams formula is an empirical rule, that holds well for cold water running in pipes under turbulent flow conditions. Lappeenranta, November 18, 2007 Paritosh R. The water is allowed to flow over a wall where it is filtered through a bed of sand to remove any additional particles. These values are proportionate to full flow. PFDs are used for visitor information and new employee training. Coal is fuel here because we are going to draw the flow diagram of…. View Flow Through Pipe PPTs online, safely and virus-free! Many are downloadable. ANYTHING SMALLER DOESN’T ALLOW FOR MAXIMUM FLOW FROM HYDRANT. Smoke Cartel offers a gorgeous variety of glass pipes, hand pipes, and spoons for your smoking pleasure. Residual and Static flows are measured here. World demand and production of diamond both for gem and industrial purposes has increased nearly five-fold during the past 25 years. Keep in mind that coal is about a thousand times denser than air and is a solid. A summary of flow visualization methods is included in the table below: Flow Visualization comparison: Method Flow Vis. FLOW RATE AS A FUNCTION OF PRESSURE HEAD AND HOLE DIAMETER IN DRILLED PVC PIPE Drilled Hole Diameter (inches) Pressure Head 3/32* 1/8** 5/32 3/16 7/32 ¼. laminar and turbulent flow, Reynolds experiment, frictional loss in pipes, derivation of expression for loss of head due to friction in pipes, co-efficient of friction in terms of shear stress, basics of shear stress in turbulent flow, minor head losses in pipe flow, hydraulic gradient and total energy line, basic concept and working of syphon and. Computation of travel time and time of concentration Water moves through a watershed as sheet flow, shallow concentrated flow, open channel flow, or some combination of these. FLOW THROUGH PIPES Definition of flow through pipes. Generate a creative presentation on judicious management of natural resources and artificial build-ups through Infographic water pipes PowerPoint template. For more detailed information click here for our pipe selection based on pipe size and flow requirement Nomograph. This document is highly rated by Mechanical Engineering students and has been viewed 410 times. THE HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE OF PERFORATED PIPE UNDER-DRAINS SURROUNDED BY LOOSE AGGREGATE Patrick Murphy The resulting flow is quite complex with porous media flow through the aggregate, multiple orifice flows into the pipe and pipe flow with lateral inflow along the length. The flow rate depends on the head loss, which again depends on the flow rate. The performance or characteristic curve of the pump 13. Flow Through Pipes 293363. Utkarsh Kale (roll no) 202101 3. 17 Grease traps 10. Reynold's Number (Re). Flow of Air in Pipes Equation and Calculator. As per Bernoulli's equation, the total head at any point in water under steady flow condition may be expressed as Total head = pressure head + velocity head + elevation head This principle can be understood with regards to the flow of water through a sample of soil. Experiments on Flow through Pipes. Requires solids/bubbles. In this project "Simulation and Flow Analysis Through Different pipe geometry" an exertion has been made to make point by point study of flow through pipe and figure the losses in head because of change in geometry. Flow rate Q is directly proportional to the pressure difference P 2 − P 1 , and inversely proportional to the length l of the tube and viscosity η of the fluid. In the present paper, we have studied the flow through a circular pipe which is bounded by a porous medium fully saturated with the viscous fluid in the presence of applied magnetic field. The strong performance and long term service of the pipes has been well documented. 111 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 612-625-0705. Transitional flow: Transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow, with turbulence flow in the center of the pipe and laminar flow near the edges of the pipe. When calculating pipe size, the speed of the water (velocity) moving through the pipes must not exceed 3. com A pipe contains a gradually tapering section where the diameter decreases from 400 mm to 250 mm. Parabolic Velocity Profile : Fully developed laminar pipe flow is generally known as Hagan-Poiseuille flow. was incorporated in 1963. They then use Bernoulli’s equation to find mass flow rate through each of the meters, comparing to flow rates measured using the hydraulic bench. These work through positive displacement, where the volume of water flowing though in a given amount of time is measured. The hydraulic radius, R, is the proportion between the area and the perimeter of your pipe. Vertical Pipe Flow Regimes. Can be installed on your hot and cold valves (valves Sold separately). The flow rate calculator can also calculate the mass flow rate of liquids given the liquid density is known. Or with the kinematic velocity, viscosity, which is the, the expression on the right hand, side. View Slide 1-Closed Conduit Flow. Flow Pulse ® Non-invasive clamp-on flow sensor for pipes. Flow through a Venturi Meter 6. In this case, 135-pound-per-square-inch (psi) compressed air is being conveyed through a three-inch Schedule 40 steel pipe to a treatment facility 350 feet away. decrease when overland flow is directed through storm sewers, street gutters, and diversions. Pipes are constructed from this material and used in various applications from plumbing to construction. As the quantity of the liquid flows through the pipe, there will be a frictional resistance. 5) Flow area is determined by the geometry of the channel plus. • Large, open core radiator eliminates blockage with debris passing through radiator. The pipe is 12 feet long, and the difference in height between the beginning and end points of the pipe is equal to 3 feet. Reshape a pipe to see how it changes fluid flow speed. The V-cone flow meter has a cone shaped obstruction in. The flow of active and reactive power is called power flow or load flow. The examiners of the thesis were Professor Heikki Haario and PhD Matti Heiliö. How to determine friction head 12. 16 Turbulent Flow 1 2 37 251 f 10 D f =− + ⎛ ⎝ ⎜ ⎞ ⎠ log ⎟. Transient Flow These flows can be identified by using Reynolds's number. This thesis presents results of an experimental investigation of the. This can get very complicated, so we'll focus on one simple case, but we should briefly mention the different categories of fluid flow. The Pipe Flow Expert Software can be used to model pipe systems with just a few pipes through to more complex systems with many hundreds of pipes. This lab was directed at observing the effects of friction on fluid flow in different pipes. For pipes intended to transfer heat through the wall, like pipes used in geothermal, radiant heating/cooling, or snow and ice melting systems, there is another concern. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Laminar flow can occur with very viscous fluids such as lube oil and with very small flow velocities. Based on the nature of the problem & type of fluid flow, we can get particular solutions. Equations displayed for easy reference. The polyethylene materials that are now in use offer performance factors that are significantly improved over the pipes that have been in service for decades. However, multi-split systems turn OFF or ON completely in response to one master controller, whereas VRF systems continually adjust the flow of refrigerant to each indoor evaporator. Watch this video and get answers on How to Create and Draw and present visually Pipe Flow Diagrams in PowerPoint - PPT Presentation Template. I have done some reading and found that I can put a Magnetic Wheel inside the Pipe, However there are issues with Sealing the pipe on which the wheel sits and is not very reliable. course, valves used to control flow. Re ε (Colebrook eqn) (1-10) Equivalent length of valves and fittings: Pressure drop for valves and fittings is accounted for as equivalent length of pipe. Ultrasonic Flowmeter with Totalization These ultrasonic flowmeters are for applications with 100 PPM of 100 microns in size particulates or bubbles in the liquid. Pipes are like holes for water to flow through. The water from the dam flows down through pipes and rotates the turbines of generators to The gas is taken out through the gas outlet. Available pipe flow theory pages. Hot exhaust gases flow through a pipe as shown below. Feb 9, 2015 - Explore bauerbackflow's board "Backflow Info" on Pinterest. Domestic areas typically use a piston/rotary positive displacement meters or a nutating disk meter, while commercial areas use turbine flow meters. Plain concrete pipes can bear Water-head up to 15 meters ( 50 feet) R. The pipe is designed to be universal. Recall, you cannot have a fully general solution to the Navier -Stokes equation. Manish Musale (roll no) 202150 4. Air flow from outside. Needed is an inexpensive device for non-invasively determining yes, water is flowing, or no, water is not flowing. Q inf = (0. Pipe in Series: Pipes are said to be in series if they are connected end to end (in continuation with each other) so that the fluid flows in a continuous line without any branching. It connects to another, bigger pipe that feeds into the pump itself. This requires a detailed understanding of fluid flow in pipes. 9 Moving fluids. 11 Flow through the Suction Pipe of a Drainage Pump 6. Characterized by the equation: rc /rh 1 where rc is the capillary radius, and rh is the hydraulic radius of the flow channel. When the valve is in open state, the through hole is in-line with the fluid flow and hence, the fluid passes through it. through the smaller pipe while the other fluid flows through the annular space between the two pipes. It can cause very high pressures in pipes, very high forces on pipe supports, and even sudden reversals of flow. Flow through pipe at 40 psi Flow through pipe at 40 psi rrewis (Mechanical) (OP) 21 Jun 10 09:39. The pressure loss between upstream and centre, and centre and downstream tapping points must be taken separately. pdf), Text File (. Note that fluid flow can get very complex when it becomes turbulent. In the present paper, we have studied the flow through a circular pipe which is bounded by a porous medium fully saturated with the viscous fluid in the presence of applied magnetic field. Finally, the Darcy friction factor can be found using Equations (8) and (9) 2 8 w m f U τ ρ = (10) For horizontal pipe flow (Δz =0) 2 2 τw ππRLpR=Δ (11) w 2 pR L τ Δ = (12) From Equation (10) the friction factor f is defined by 1 2 2 4 w m f U τ ρ = (13) Thus combining. A common problem with pipes is corrosion. FLOW IN PIPES Fluid flow in circular and noncircular pipes is commonly encountered in practice. • Therefore, the power flow through a transmission line depends on the angle between the input and output voltages. Editable graphics with text and icon placeholders. Motion paths have many uses in PowerPoint and can create impact and focus. Laminar Flow B. Friction Losses in Pipes. A widely used approach in steady-state analysis of water distribution networks is the global gradient algorithm (GGA). The pipe is enclosed in a concrete casing that is of square cross-section and 1. 16 Froude Number. water takes place. Continuity Equation When a fluid is in motion, it must move in such a way that mass is conserved. This is a high-yielding topic since it carries a high weight age in GATE. Polypropylene is a relatively easy materials to injection mould in spite of its semicrystalline nature. Smoke Cartel offers a gorgeous variety of glass pipes, hand pipes, and spoons for your smoking pleasure. Heat Pipes Seminar and PPT with pdf report: A heat pipe is a device that effortlessly transports thermal energy from its one point to the other. Velocity of water flow in a pipe: an example. ppt), PDF File (. Copper construction. The volumetric air flow rate can be found using the psychrometric chart, where inlet air at 68 F and 50 percent RH has a tabulated specific volume percent of 13. Task: Calculate the pressure drop that creates natural gas at a flow rate of 500 MMSCFD through a pipeline with the nominal diameter of 36", and the length of 4 miles, with an internal roughness of the pipe wall of 0. In this present work the study and analysis of natural convection flow of water through vertical pipe is done. The flow rate depends on the head loss, which again depends on the flow rate. Boundary roughness plays a significant role in the flow. flowing through the outside tube. Illustrate Fluid Flow in a Pipe. 1 Introduction Unsteady flow in pipes results primarily from the operation of flow regulation devices such as valves or pumps. This requires a detailed understanding of fluid flow in pipes. (Kilograms are about mass, not force, so g has to be included to do the conversion. Pipes are like holes for water to flow through. Displaying losses in pipe flow PowerPoint Presentations Me33: Fluid Flow Lecture 1: Information And Introduction 417932 PPT Presentation Summary : KNTU CIVIL ENGINEERIG FACULTY FLOW IN PIPES With special thanks to ILZADE Velocity profile: For pipes with variable diameter, m is still the same (due to. For pipes connected in series the pressure loss is the sum of the individual losses: dp = dp 1 + dp 2 +. Overview of flow meter and water manometer. CONTAINERS • Thermal • Similar construction as general purpose • Inside is isolated from outer. 9 feet for every 100 feet traveled. Doppler flow meter. Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing. Coolant Reservoir. There are many differ-ent types of flow meters available on the market. Flow Rate Calculator. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow Slideshow 1861810 by lita. The type that occurs is a function of the conveyance system and is best deter-. 000001 A galvanized iron pipe with a roughness height of 0. For electricity, the source is the power generating station; current travels through electric conductors (wires); and the force to make it flow - voltage, measured in volts, is provided by. The pipe is designed to be universal. View Slide 1-Closed Conduit Flow. 10 Open inlets 9 3. In general, there are two main types of systems in which pumps can be installed, open-loop and closed loop systems. In addition, where dynamic analysis is needed to add further insight, the PIPESIM-to-OLGA converter tool enables rapid conversion of models. ME 582 Finite Element Analysis in Thermofluids Dr. Power flow studies provide asystematic mathematical approach for determination of various bus voltages, there phase angle active and reactive power flows through different branches, generators and loads under steady state condition. By observation, the head loss is roughly proportional to the square of the flow rate in most engineering flows (fully developed, turbulent pipe flow). This is a concentric tube construction. Re ε (Colebrook eqn) (1-10) Equivalent length of valves and fittings: Pressure drop for valves and fittings is accounted for as equivalent length of pipe. The flow of active and reactive power is called power flow or load flow. This is the internal diameter of a pipe or duct that would be required for a substance moving at the specified speed and. 4 x 10-6) x V2 (1) where V is the flow rate in gpm. The flow of steam through a safety valve vent pipe system has been analyzed to provide a design basis for sizing the pipe to prevent blowback of steam. l 1) Where l 1 is the distance between the two equipotentials. flow through the outside faucet – not in the line. As in our own bodies, where the veins and arteries move blood through the pumping. Part 1 (PPT) b. 528P0 Triatomic ~1. Includes 53 different calculations. Force required for moving the solids mass through the con-veying pipeline. When you start with a template, you'll be able to add a process step in just a click or create a decision point just as easily. FLOW IN PIPES Fluid flow in circular and noncircular pipes is commonly encountered in practice. The V-cone flow meter has a cone shaped obstruction in. This may be needed for the kitchen sink, but we find that a 1. Type of fluid — high viscous fluids need lesser velocity when compared to low viscous fluids 2. If I misread what you wrote and the water continues to flow through the 120 cm pipe to the 30 cm pipe then you can determine the change in pressure with the energy equation (Bernoulli Eq. txt) or view presentation slides online. 542P0 Vapor flow though holes & pipes Vapor flow through holes Steady flow of vapor. To aid the user and provide a basis for comparison, the. ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. 12 Pumping of sewage 9 3. water flow will fill the pipe. or a pipe valve can be used. The handle operates a plunger with some sort of washer or seal on the bottom. The pressure pushes water along the pipes even when they bend. Lecture PPT b. Extrusion is a metal forming process in which metal or work piece is forced to flow through a die to reduce its cross section or convert it into desire shape. Erosion, physical process in which soil, rock, and other surface material are removed from one location and transported to another. Laminar & turbulent Flow Shear stress on fluid Newton’s law of viscosity Shear stress, , in fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient - the rate of change of velocity across the fluid path. Keywords: Developing and Fully developed, Laminar flow, Concentric annulus, Pipe flow, Moving Core, Numerical model, Staggered grid, Pressure correction technique. FLOW THROUGH PIPES. Title 17 through Title 27. Downstream of the vena contracta the flow expands in an irreversible process to the pipe wall of flow area A. Title 28 through Title 41. Cooling towers are also characterized by the means by which air is moved. These changes in conditions cause the. The kinetic energy per unit volume term in the equation is the one which requires strict constraints. For a given value of specific energy, E1, the discharge may pass through the channel section at either depth d1 (supercritical flow) or d2 (subcritical flow). ANYTHING SMALLER DOESN’T ALLOW FOR MAXIMUM FLOW FROM HYDRANT. Plastic Pipe Used in Embankment Dams passing through a perforation, care should be taken to not use slot length values as the maximum dimension. Flow rate depends on friction 8. The discharge through the main is increased by connecting pipes in parallelthe rate of flow in the main pipe is equal to the sum of rate of flow through branch pipes. The contents of the Federal Register are required to be judicially noticed (44 U. •JCB use stainless steel charge cooler pipes to prevent internal rust being drawn into engine with high temperature silicon hoses and constant torque clips to eliminate pipe ‘blow-off’. Title 42 through Title 50. Be able to use the Darcy Weisbach equation and the Moody friction factor equations to calculate the frictional pressure drop for a given flow rate of a specified fluid through a pipe with known diameter. The maximum force main velocity at peak conditions is recommended not to exceed 3 meters per second (10 feet per second). Free Convection: External Flow • Only empirical relations exist for most “real” geometries • Immersed Vertical Plate – average Nusselt numbers – Churchill & Chu correlation: laminar flow (Ra L<109) – Churchill & Chu correlation: all flow regimes € Nu L=0. through a ¼" diameter tube containing an elbow. I see they come in various diameters and I'm wondering as I need a 50m length should I go for a standard 1/2 inch or the next size up a 3/4 inch diameter. There are 3 types of flows A. From simplistic styles to heady designs, we have a pipe to fit your paw. The compressibility effects on mass flow rate have some unexpected results. In vertical pipes the force required to support the weight of the solids. Metals don’t like being metals, they prefer remaining as ores. We are taking entry or exit w. The open channel flow calculator Select Channel Type: Trapezoid Triangle Rectangle Circle Select parameter for solving Velocity(V)&Discharge(Q) Channel slope from V Channel slope from Q Manning Coefficient from V Manning Coefficient from Q Depth from Q RightSlope from Q Even slope from Q LeftSlope from Q. Flow Pulse offers you exceptional repeatability at a fraction of the cost of an equivalent magflow meter. View Slide 1-Closed Conduit Flow. when A and B are point in two reservoir), it is common practice to neglect the kinetic energy terms at A and B. In this case, 135-pound-per-square-inch (psi) compressed air is being conveyed through a three-inch Schedule 40 steel pipe to a treatment facility 350 feet away. In this double-pipe heat exchanger a hot process fluid flowing through the inner pipe transfers its heat to cooling water flowing in the outer pipe. Here are the best brands of CPVC pipes in India that offer these maintenance free service life pipes that are non-combustive, easy to install, light weight and have low friction. Standard Export PowerPoint slide In this paper we shall show how students can generate pipe shapes for which the velocity profile can be found exactly. Force required for moving the solids mass through the con-veying pipeline. Th fl i d b b l f i ht d iThe flow is governed by a balance of pressure, weight, and viscous forces in the flow direction. OPEN CHANNEL FLOW METHODS Flow Measurement In Open Channels Open channel flow is flow in any channel in which the liquid flows with a free surface. In addition, where dynamic analysis is needed to add further insight, the PIPESIM-to-OLGA converter tool enables rapid conversion of models. Trying to find out what the flow rate through the open end of the pipe will be, doesn't seem to be a straight forward operation. Heat Pipes Seminar and PPT with pdf report: A heat pipe is a device that effortlessly transports thermal energy from its one point to the other. Velocity, hydraulic radius and quantity and area of flow vary with the depth of flow. Desirable attribute: That the nozzle person can shut-off water flow at the nozzle when necessary. An obstruction in pipe. Residual and Static flows are measured here. Velocity of water flow in a pipe: an example. Laminar & turbulent Flow Shear stress on fluid Newton’s law of viscosity Shear stress, , in fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient - the rate of change of velocity across the fluid path. For reference, the diamond is the tank I am talking about. • Equation for flow through a trapezoidal channel: ()( )Depth Velocity w w Q 2 = 1 + 2 9 ASM320: Water and Waste Water Operations Pipe (Circular cross-section) • Equation for flow through a pipe, where D is the pipe diameter ()Velocity D Q 4 2 =π. The flow of a fluid through a pipe is governed by various equations, representing the array of factors that control flow conditions. The flow of active and reactive power is called power flow or load flow. 22 105 Pa and the pipe. A liquid bi-propellant rocket consists of a thrust chamber and nozzle and some means for forcing the liquid propellants into the chamber were they react, converting chemical energy to thermal energy. For turbulent flow f determined from turbulence modeling since exact solutions not known. Chemical Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transport Fluid Flow: Conservation of Momentum, Mass, and Energy Describing Fluid Flow. The compressibility effects on mass flow rate have some unexpected results. Note that in a counter-flow heat exchanger the outlet temperature of the cold fluid can exceed the outlet temperature of the hot fluid but this cannot happen in a parallel flow system. The density of steam at 5 bar g is 3. When water flows through a pipe of uniform cross section, the quantity of water passing any point in a given interval of time depends upon the velocity with which the water flows and the area of cross section of the pipe. Beginning with a definition of the problem, including the temperature difference and the heat flow which has to be transported, one can define all the demands on a heat pipe. Downstream of the vena contracta the flow expands in an irreversible process to the pipe wall of flow area A. 15 Prevent storm water entering drainage system 10 3. + m n (2b) The pressure loss in the equations above can be substituted with a generic expression for pressure loss like the D'Arcy-Weisbach equation. Title 28 through Title 41. The closure member is a spherical plug with a through hole. Psychrometric PowerPoint PPT Presentations. The pipe is enclosed in a concrete casing that is of square cross-section and 1. 10 Open inlets 9 3. Other case is known as open channel flow. Need some help on what diameter size hose would be best to fit to my pressure washer. course, valves used to control flow. Located at frequent intervals so only. FLOW IN PIPES. If the surface temperature of the pipe is kept at a constant value of 180°C, determine the pipe length. The appropriate revision date is printed on the cover of each volume. The following sections will present forces driving flow, , air barrier systems, a discussion of flow within building enclosures, and air leakage tolerant enclosure designs. The flow rate depends on the head loss, which again depends on the flow rate. Keep in mind that coal is about a thousand times denser than air and is a solid. For more information about this alternative, see the post, " Friction Factor/Pipe Flow Calculations with Excel Spreadsheets. Water supply system, infrastructure for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage, and distribution of water for homes, commercial establishments, industry, and irrigation, as well as for such public needs as firefighting and street flushing. The density of water is about 1,000 kg/m 3 - a litre weighs a kilogram. Pipeline JA JB JC Length L (m) 5000 3000 4000 Diameter D (m) 0. A considerable amount of fluid energy is lost in the order of overcoming these resistances. Divide the diameter by 2 to find the radius of the pipe. The major loss is that due to frictional resistance of the. 70 105 Pa and the pipe radius is 2. inches Cubic ft/min Gallons/minute 1/8. Jörg Imberger, in Environmental Fluid Dynamics, 2013. It can cause very high pressures in pipes, very high forces on pipe supports, and even sudden reversals of flow. 28 Constant 40 35 32 31 27 25 23 21 20 19 12000 26. How to determine friction head 12. Backwashing consists of reversing the flow of water so that it enters from the bottom of the filter bed, lifts and rinses the bed, then exits through the top of the filter tank. Open Channel Flow – Specific Energy and Rapid Transitions – Hydraulic Jumps – Slowly varying flow – Open channel control structures 3. *This description is not a standard for all treatment plants, but the principle is similar. When attached to the outside or inside of a pipe, they gauge: material flow mass, material flow volume or material flow speed. This version is usable for browsers without Javascript also. There is also a standard (4x3) version of this template available. 4) HGL is coincident with the free surface. Velocity of water flow in a pipe: an example. Flow Through Pipes. FLOW RATE AS A FUNCTION OF PRESSURE HEAD AND HOLE DIAMETER IN DRILLED PVC PIPE Drilled Hole Diameter (inches) Pressure Head 3/32* 1/8** 5/32 3/16 7/32 ¼. 293: Viscous Flow 364409 d x 2g Delhi University density of air depth differential manometer discharge distance drag force due to friction Find fluid flow free surface given by equation gradient head due head loss Hence horizontal isothermal process kg/m kinematic. Abdel-Alim Hashem Professor of Petroleum Engineering Mining, Petroleum & Metallurgical Eng. When a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences some resistance due to which some of the energy of the fluid is lost. Using Bernoulli's equation, calculate the flow of water through a pipe based on pressure. 5-step horizontal process diagram with 5 cylinders inside a transparent pipe. Heat exhaustion is caused by a deficiency of water and/or salt intake and circulatory strain from competing demands for blood flow to the skin and to active muscles. 1 Single-Phase Flow. KEYWORDS pipeline pipe gauge flow connection connect transport transfer distribute production process project order organization infographic PowerPoint timeline template. PTT 204/3 APPLIED FLUID MECHANICS SEM 2 (2012/2013). Q inf = (0. , at the particular plant site.